The Indian Head Penny was minted from 1859-1909 and designed by Philadelphia Mint engraver, James Barton Longacre. The design replaced the Flying Eagle as it was easier to strike. It was slightly altered three times during its production and, in 1864, the material changed to bronze after five years of being made from 88% copper and 12% nickel.
In 1906, a congressional act allowed the cent to be minted outside of Philadelphia, and in 1908, the San Francisco Mint began producing the Indian Head Penny. A year later, the penny transitioned to feature the well-known Lincoln profile.
The Indian Head Penny today is highly valued for its red copper luster, and is considered by many collectors to be one of the most aesthetically pleasing coins ever minted.