The Indian Head Penny was minted from 1859-1909 and designed by Philadelphia Mint engraver, James Barton Longacre. Cornelius Vermeule III, a curator and scholar, praised this coin as “perhaps the most beloved and typically American of any piece great or small in the American series.” James Fraser designed the Buffalo Nickel in 1911 and the first coins were minted from 1913-1938. Fraser accomplished his goal to design a coin representative of America's culture and history. The bust on the front is a composite of three Native American chiefs including Iron Tail, of the Oglala Lakota subtribe. The Mercury Dime, often referred to as the Winged Liberty Head Dime, was minted from 1916-1945. The image on the front is often thought to be the Roman god, Mercury, but is, in fact, a portrait of young Liberty wearing a hat similar to a Phrygian cap or a pileus, which are both associated with liberty and freedom. The coin's designer, Adolph Weinman, added the wings to the cap to represent "liberty of thought."